ISSN: 1818-0346

Volume 1, Issue 24

Volume 1, Issue 24, Autumn 2018, Page 1-524


The Heritage and Thought of Abu Al-Hasan Al-Hamdani (970-893 A. D.) in Oriental and Contemporary Arab Writings: A Critical Comparative Study

ad Ibrahim Al-Alawy; Asst .Prof. Dr. Sa

Journal of Historical studies, Volume 1, Issue 24, Pages 1-52

The issue of keeping the produced knowledge by oriental and contemporary Arab writings about the heritage and thought of Abu Al-Hasan Al-Hamadani (970-893 A. D.) without analysis and criticism a real problem that has its consequences and reflections on the question of producing objective knowledge concerning Al-Hamadani’s heritage and thought.
The researcher aims to verify, analyse and criticise the produced knowledge by oriental and contemporary Arab writings of Al-Hamadani’s heritage and thought relying on historical and critical sociological approaches starting from the systematic openness doctrine and the opportunities and possibilities it introduce to approach the raised issues under question.
The researcher found that there are cognitive and methodological obstacles facing oriental and contemporary Arab writings and thus hinder an objective evaluation related to the achieved knowledge of Al-Hamadani and in determining the location it deserves in history of science and human thought.
The researcher shows the need of oriental and contemporary Arab writings for adopting the historical approach, the critical sociological approach and modern scientific translation, to complete the process of investigation, analysis and translation of Al-Hamdani’s texts on scientific bases and which leads to the production of an objective knowledge and the formation of an objective awareness of the heritage and thought of Abu Al-Hasan Al-Hamadani.

The Historical Development of Bektashian order from the fourteenth century Ad Until the present time

Prof. Dr. Bassim Hamza Abbas

Journal of Historical studies, Volume 1, Issue 24, Pages 53-86

The Bektashi Order: is a Sufi order of a Shi’i truth and origin, but it developed in Sunni countries like Turkey and Egypt, as well as in Iraq and other parts of the world.
It is related to Khinkar Haji Mohammad Bektashi Khorasani Nishapuri, who born in 1284, and related himself to Imam Musa Al-Kadhim.
He first travelled to Najaf in Iraq then he took a pilgrimage to Mecca, then he travelled afterwards to Turkey in the era of the Ottoman Sultan Orhan who died in 1362. He founded the first taqiyya of the order, then it started to spread between the Janissaries, and it grew some sympathies with some sultans while some others refused it, such as Sultan Mohammad II who died in 1839 who abolished it after he dismantled the Janissaries, but it was later revived by Sultan Abd Al-Majeed I who died in 1861. In year 1925 a decree was issued of the abolishment of all of the Sufi ways including Bektashism, even though, it continued to spread in Iraq and Egypt, it has its own rituals and acts of sacred worship and it still exists in the places from where it emerged.

The Hedjaz during the second half of the VIIIth c H / XIV th c J. C through the Moorish Abdallah ibn Assabbah’s Travel

Dr. Jamel Abdouli

Journal of Historical studies, Volume 1, Issue 24, Pages 87-128

This article proposes to examine the historical image of the region of Hedjaz during the second half of the VIIIth c H / XIV th c J. C through the Moorish Abdallah ibn Assabbah’s travel which browsed the Muslim East from Andalusia. In his travel which the main aims was to make pilgrimage and to visit the holy lands, Ibn Assabah provided a detailed description of many Hedjaz routes and cities with their sites and monuments. In addition, this traveler recall as eyewitness a precious and rare information about the aspects of economic and social life in different areas of the region of Hedjaz.

Divorce between Sharia Muhammadiyah and the Iraqi Personal Status Law The

Prof. Dr. Ali Salih Risan

Journal of Historical studies, Volume 1, Issue 24, Pages 129-176

Since the collapse of the last regime, many of its associated laws have been in use till now, such as law of personal status, as if reformulating this type of law is impossible. This law, in fact, is against the religious law. Thus, the researcher has tried to set things right concerning this aspect, showing some negative perspectives of this law, and comparing this with that type of law formulated by Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him and his offspring). This work is entitled "Exploring divorce in the religious law and The Iraqi law of personal status

An Analytic Study of a New Sabaean Inscriptions from Wadi Rbd Sanhan (Yemen)

Asst .Prof. Dr. Ali Mohammed Al- Nashiri

Journal of Historical studies, Volume 1, Issue 24, Pages 177-224

This paper is an analytic study of new Sabaean inscriptions written in Musnad (Na Wadi Rabd 9-19) script that were recently found in Wadi Rbd (18 km Southeast the city of Sana’a). The Texts were read in Arabic letters then translated into classic Arabic. The study interprets and analyzes these rock drawings and inscriptions, and traces their historical course. The work was an attempt to understand the history of the region and the relation of people to their social and religious environment.., The importance of those inscriptions is that it includes ten new names and the name of a new temple for the god Wadd Thee Awsan. This is considered a new addition to the names and other known temples in the Yemeni ancient inscriptions.

Armed conflict between the parties The Kurdistan Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (1994-1998)And the international position on that

Asst .Prof. Dr. Wasan Saeed Abood Asst. Lect. Nabil El Alawi

Journal of Historical studies, Volume 1, Issue 24, Pages 225-266

The years 1994-1998 witnessed an armed conflict between the most prominent political parties in Iraqi Kurdistan (KDP and PUK) for power, influence and control of land resources and borders. And brought in some international parties within the framework of the equation of war and peace within the territory of Iraq. But the result is thousands of dead, wounded, missing and homeless.
The research sheds light on the causes and stages of the armed conflict and the international actors that intervened and took their position in this conflict until the war between them ended in the Washington Agreement of 1998.

John of NikiÛ and the Muslim Conquest of Egypt (A critical reading of the World Chronicle of John, Bishop of NikiÛ)

Dr. Mohamed Bentaja

Journal of Historical studies, Volume 1, Issue 24, Pages 267-308

Nobody can deny the significant role of Islamic history in inculcating a greater understanding of the nature of the Muslim religion and in clarifying past events and biographies that respond to the numerous critical questions and the false and malicious accusations against Islam and Muslims, especially in this tense global context that is witnessing a growing anti-religious culture and rhetoric and vilification of religions that are being considered as a threat to the materialistic and globalized world.
The Chronicle of John, Bishop of NikiÛ is so unique not only in the field of general history but also regarding its immense worth and value that touches upon the very core of the Muslim religion and thanks to its writer who was a Coptic Christian and one of the prominent Egyptian intellects who were contemporaries of both Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) and the Orthodox Caliphs and who witnessed the end-to-end Muslim conquest of Egypt. In his Chronicle with its one hundred and twenty-two chapters, John, the Coptic Bishop of Nikiu, has put together accounts of the primitive events from Adam until the 7th century. He also, as an eyewitness, elaborated and dwelt upon the events relating to the Muslim conquest of Egypt, which made his Chronicle so valuable and indispensable to any researcher concerned with that era, and especially if we take into consideration that the events relating to such a conquest were not recorded and documented in Islamic history books until the 8th century. That is to say, this Chronicle has documented the events in time and place and was, chronologically speaking, two centuries ahead of the most ancient Islamic books and included in detail all the events relating to the Muslim conquest of Egypt. However, John of Nikiu’s version of the events, and like most other outsider testimonies, did not come without tarnishing the image of Islam and Muslims through inventing numerous fabrications and slanders: In chapter 110, he mentioned the emergence of Islam in the land of “El Fayoum” and the failure of the Roman residents there and he stated

Impact of historical precedents in Islamic State financial systems(41-232)

Asst .Prof. fouad Touhara

Journal of Historical studies, Volume 1, Issue 24, Pages 309-336

This study reflects the historical and civilizational heritage impact of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Persia in shaping the financial policy of the Islamic State in the field of theorization and practices, in par-ticular the idea of al dīwāns and Bayt al-mal institution responsible for ad-ministration of taxes in the first Islamic caliphate. and the quality of taxes imposed by the succes-sors of the country, as well as collection systems and areas of financial ex-penditure.
The legislative vacuum and the lack of experience of the Islamic State have not prevented the dependence on the heritage of the previous States, which has reached a degree of sophistication and attraction, particularly in the administration and land management.

The thought role of early sheeaa

Asst .Prof. Dr. Mohanad A Hamdan

Journal of Historical studies, Volume 1, Issue 24, Pages 337-410

Those companions ad been gathered with common characters like firmness and none deviated from right and early companionship and braveness, science, patience and believing in the case of Imam ALI BIN ABI TALIB ( G.B) and his sacrificing them and their devoting for his sake as a desire for staying close to the right and coming close to god with that.
Also they had participated in spreading his case and informing people that he had been injustice by others plus his family and his companions has got form that what they had got till they had been expelled and been evacuated from their homes and been killed on their enemies hands and those who are contrary with them in opinions but they did not cared and they did not said that this is to much because they are believing in their case and their prior knowing about ruggedness of the road of right and rarely passable.
Also it is non forgettable their superiority on the others on some fields and their creation others and so they were imams in some sciences and they were placers till their names were stick with that as explanation, and IBN ABAAS and conversations with JABIR AL ANSAARY , and Grammar with ABO AL ASWAD AL DOOLY , History with SALEEM BIN QAIS , credibility , asceticism and preaching and revolution against injustice with ABY THAR , braveness with MALIK AL ASHTAR , AMAAR BIN YASER , AL MEQDAAD BIN AL ASWAAD , HOTHAIFAH BIN AL YAMAAN , generosity with QAIS BIN SAAD and ODAY BIN HATEM..etc…

The Political , religious , and cultural conditions in the Arabian Jazeera prior to the era of prophecy

Dr. Muhammed Mostafa Afker

Journal of Historical studies, Volume 1, Issue 24, Pages 411-460

Many writers and researchers view the pre-Islam era as an epoch of total darkness and obscurity since anarchy, tribal conflicts and wars were the dominant factors. These researchers adopted the European historians who used to portray the middle ages in Europe as a dark period with the intention to the highlight the renaissance period. This gloomy picture on pre-Islam Arabs persisted alongside other characteristics such as arrogance and ignorance; the opposites of tolerance and knowledge respectively.
This misleading vision requires us to approach the matter historically with the aim of casting light on a feature thatreflects the Arabs cultural background. In this I will answer the frequent question: is it consistent that people lacking all civilization potentials assume the responsibility of transmitting the holly message to the world? Weren’t there any values in the pre-Islamic era?
A thorough studyof the facts and evidences contained in history books about the cultural, political and economic conditions in the pre-Islamic Arab peninsula, the overall state of ethical decline of the communities will surely reveal to us not only the nature of the societies and their cultural, spiritual composition but the economic, political and social state as well. Examining all these facts will disclose the dramatic conditions that the Arabians, the Persians and Romans used to witness at the time due to lack of religious instinct, that part of the world including Mecca, which was an important international commercial and religious center, experienced a state of regression and decadence in all its aspects
But depicting features of backwardness and decadence doesn’t necessarily means that the peoples were conflicting and astray. Viewing that era as such had largely to do with the previous religious circumstances (cult of Abraham and Ismail) peace be upon them. As intolerance doesn’t necessarily mean ignorance that leads to polytheism and injustice, cultural backwardness doesn’t necessarily mean a total absence of culture. This is illogic. Culture encompasses everything that’s acquired by humans: life style, traditions, clothing…
For this aim, this study is carried out to honor that era of the Arab history through depicting and analyzing some ethical, religious, political and cultural aspects of the community and draw a close picture of the very circumstances at the time.
Although features of illusion, ignorance, myth and legendry characterized the communities of the Arabian Peninsula, there were also positive values of courage, hospitality, solidarity, keeping promises that were consolidated by Islam.The prophet Mohammad said “I was sent just to complement noble values” to complement something that already exited .

Alarm event between the Qur'anic text and the historical narrative

Lect. Dr. Intisar Adnan Abd Al wahid Al awad

Journal of Historical studies, Volume 1, Issue 24, Pages 461-524

The second step taken by the Prophet (PBUH) after inviting his family (Ali and Khadija) was to invite his close family, In compliance with the Koranic command ((and warn your close relatives)), who are his close relatives? Why were they invited? And when? Where was the meeting? What is the role of Imam Ali (AS) in this meeting? Was the funeral normal or is it miraculous? And who are invited? How many? What is the purpose of the meeting? And what was the position of the congregation of the Prophet's call (r)? What are the outcome of the meeting? And who is the narrator of the incident, whether narrators or primary sources.
The study was based on a number of sources, the most important of which are the book of al-Maghazi and the biography of Ibn Ishaq, the history of al-Yaqoubi, the history and interpretation of al-Tabari, the complete history of Ibn al-Atheer, and the writings of Ibn Katheer in biography, history and interpretation.
Ibn Taymiyah expressed doubts about the incident and expressed several questions about it, and it was put forward and answered in detail.